Agri 2022

Effect of climate change on the broiler production industry in the tropics

Cocou Claude Kpomasse

Cocou Claude Kpomasse, Speaker at Agriculture Conferences
Faculty of Agronomy Sciences, Benin
Title : Effect of climate change on the broiler production industry in the tropics

Abstract:

The development of the broiler production industry is handicapped in the tropics by many constraints that affect the expression of the chickens' genetic potential. The problem of climate change, which has become a global concern, is the main problem in broiler production under hot and humid climate. Maintaining an optimum climatic environment in a conventional open-sided house is a great challenge. The gradual increase of the temperature particularly associated with that of the relative humidity affects production performances and carcass composition of birds. Heat stress has become a crucial challenge in broiler industry. It leads to a decrease in feed intake and a disturbance in carbohydrates metabolism and protein synthesis efficiency. Lipid utilization is lower and glucose or insulin homeostasis is altered while fat deposition and oxidative stress increases. Several strategies are used to mitigate the effect of heat stress in poultry such as feeding approaches, genetics' approaches and management strategies. Nutritional manipulations involve variations in energy and protein levels of diets, supplementation in methionine or/and lysine, incorporation of oils in the diets, feeding crumbled and pelletized diets and incorporation of some trace elements (vitamin C, vitamin E and selenium, polyphenols, etc.) which play antioxidant defense to combat thermal stress in broilers. The strategies of the genetic approach include, on the other hand, the selection of chickens for resilience to heat stress (identification of some genes heat shock proteins (HSP) gene). Also, management strategies take into account, among other things, the thermal manipulation of broilers embryos. Finally, concerted efforts should be in place to ensure the maintenance of homeostasis of the broilers in order to improve their optimal performance and survival in the tropics.

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