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Agri 2024

Refisa Jebessa Geleta

Refisa Jebessa Geleta, Speaker at Agriculture Conferences
Ambo University, Ethiopia
Title : Phenotypic and yield responses of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris l.) varieties to different soil moisture levels


Background: Morphological plasticity is one of the capacities of plants to modify their morphological appearance in response to external stimuli. A plant’s morphology and physiology are constantly tuned to its variable surroundings by complex interactions between environmental stimuli and internal signals. In most plant species, such phenotypic and physiological expression varies among different varieties based on their levels of particular environmental stress conditions. However, the morphological and yield responses of common bean varieties to different environmental conditions are not well known. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the morphological and yield responses of common bean varieties to soil moisture stress and to investigate the morphological mechanisms by which common bean varieties tolerate fluctuations in moisture stress.

Methods: A pot experiment was carried out to investigate the effects of different moisture levels on the phenotypic and yield responses of common bean varieties. A factorial combination of five common bean varieties (Hirna, Kufanzik, Awash-1, Ado, and Chercher) and three moisture levels (control, waterlogging stress, and moisture deficit stress) was used in three replications. Moisture stress treatments were started 20 days after planting, at the trifoliate growth stage. To evaluate the response of each variety, morphological and yield data were collected at weekly intervals. Main Results: The results indicated that moisture levels and varieties had a significant influence on all growth parameters. Crop phenology was significantly influenced by the interaction effect of moisture level and variety. Exposing the Hirna variety to moisture stress led to extended flowering and pod setting by 23 and 24 days, respectively, compared to the other treatments. The results showed that the phenotypic responses to moisture deficit and waterlogging stress varied between varieties. Waterlogging stress had a stronger reduction effect on the fresh weight, dry weight, and leaf area of common bean varieties than moisture deficit and control. Pods per plant, seeds per plant, grain yield per plant, and harvest index were significantly influenced by the varieties, moisture stress levels, and their interactions. Except for Chercher and Hirna. However, varieties Ado, Kufanzik, and Awasha-1 did not show significant differences in the time of flower initiation due to moisture level. Biomass and growth in leaf fresh weight, leaf dry weight, leaf area, leaf number, and plant height were significantly influenced by moisture level. When moisture deficits and waterlogging stress occurred, Ado and Awash-1 were more responsive to moisture stress than Hirna, Chercher, and Kufanzik.

Conclusion: Hence, Hirna and Kufanzik varieties were found to be tolerant because they produced higher yields than the Chercher, Awash-1, and Ado varieties. Keywords: Moisture Deficit, Drought Stress, Morphological Plasticity, Waterlogging Stress, Yield Component


Refisa Jebessa Geleta

Ambo University, Ethiopia

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