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Agri 2024

Mesfin Mitiku Mitiku Feleke

Mesfin Mitiku Mitiku Feleke, Speaker at Agriculture Conferences
Addi Ababa University, Ethiopia
Title : Spatial and temporal water gap variabilities in Awash Basin, Ethiopia


Water resource in the Awash River basin faces significant challenge because of natural hydro-climate variabilities and climate change. In this study, spatial and temporal variability of available water gap in the Awash Basin was studied using the Water Evaluation and Planning (WEAP) model. Future scenarios were set using pre-determined government plans. Climate data from 1977 to 2020 and discharge data from 1999 to 2020 were utilized. There are six planning areas within the Awash River Basin, Upper Awash, Halidghege, Awash Awash, Adaytu, Terminal and Eastern Planning areas. The study found that among the six planning areas, the Upper Awash region, characterized by dynamic economic activities, faces severe water shortage. Although the construction of the Melka Kunture Dam (in the Upper Awash, headwaters of the Basin) may mitigate the gap by 2030. Additional water supply options are needed to leverage the water gaps, -236.7 MCM in 2030 and -712 MCM in 2080.

Possible solutions include constructing additional reservoirs, implementing water harvesting structures, and utilizing groundwater resources. The Halidghege planning area also requires attention, as there are no proposed dams or anticipated water supply options. Water gaps found to be -53 MCM in 2050 and -761.2 MCM in 2080. Potential solutions include small-scale water harvesting for immediate solution, reservoir construction, and groundwater utilization. The Eastern Planning area, covering the largest portion of the Awash Basin, faces water shortages in all study periods as well. With minimal rainfall and high temperatures, this area experiences further strain on already limited water resources. Projected water gaps are -112.1 MCM, -79.4 MCM, and -297.6 MCM in 2030, 2050, and 2080, respectively.  The results emphasize the importance of implementing additional water supply options, such as immediate water harvesting structures, long term reservoirs, and appropriate groundwater utilization, to bridge the projected water gaps and ensure sustainable development in the region.

Keywords: available water, dams, demand, plans, projection


Mesfin Mitiku Mitiku Feleke

Addi Ababa University, Ethiopia.

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