Title : Non-toxic - naturally control methods for sustainable control of main pests in olive farms in egypt
The olive ,the symbol of peace, is Mediterranean native and provides shade and food . The olive moth (OM) , the jasmine moth (JM) and the leopard moth, (ZP) are the most important insect pests in olive orchards in Egypt, They cause direct yield loss by lowering tree growth, fruit set and fruit/oil quality. Control methods were:1Trichogramma wasps : Four field collected indigenous species, as well as a commercially available, originating from sugarcane ?elds in Egypt, were released in an intensively managed olive plantation for biological control of these pests. An application rate of approximately 9000 female wasps per tree was applied (about 3000 female wasps/ card · 3 cards/tree) . Indigenous species accomplished higher effect (up to 91%) than the commercial strain. Fruit yield was signi?cantly increased on trees where indigenous wasps had been applied. The results suggested that releases of the indigenous species could improve control of pests on olive. 2. Light-sex pheromone traps: Two durable , simple, very cheap, but efficient, light sex pheromone trap types., made of simple components readily available in the farm were devised for practical use for monitoring and mass trapping of above pests. The trap does not include fans or any motorized methods of draft induction. Yield from trees in mass-trapping field was significantly increased in comparison to control trees. 3. sex pheromone for monitoring, mating disruption and mass trapping : Synthesized Female’s perfume of OM, JM and ZP were used for monitoring (all) , mating disruption (MD) (all), and mass trapping (ZP). Inclusion of photostablizers into the perfume-clay complex of OM and JM improved substantially the release rate and maintained adequate level of perfume. Fruit yield from trees where artificial perfume had been applied increased significantly compared to control ones . Application of MD in ZP plots over two consecutive years progressively reduced the number of active galleries/tree in the third year where no perfume was applied. Mating disruption shows promising for suppressing ZP infestation in olives. The combination of light and sex perfume was optimally attractive to ZP moths. 4.Volatile-plant oils and Associational Resistance at work: The study showed that susceptible varieties like Toffahi growing together in a plot with resistant cultivars (e.g. Shamy) tended to have lower attack densities, showing Associational Resistance at work. We believe that cultivars with less insect infestation are resistant due to volatile oils (allelochemics )affecting pre- or post-landing host selection or possibly habitat selection.