Title : Development of an innovative technology for obtaining composite wheat-hemp flour with a high content polyunsaturated fatty acids and protein
Products of processing of grain crops in the form of various products based on wheat flour make up a significant share in the diet of the population of Russia. However, the chemical composition of food products obtained on the basis of traditional technologies is characterized by an insufficient balance in nutritional value and biological effectiveness. In this regard, it is required to develop food products with increased nutritional and nutritional value on a grain basis by adding oilseeds (hemp). Hemp seeds are distinguished by high nutritional value, while they are rich in essential fatty amino acids (EFA), vitamins A, D, E and group B, trace elements (calcium, iron, sodium), dietary fiber. In terms of nutritional value, only soy can compete with hemp, while the quality of proteins in hemp seeds is much higher, they are close in composition to the proteins of human blood. In addition, hemp seeds are an environmentally friendly product, since no herbicides are used on hemp crops - this plant, due to its vitality, copes well with diseases and pests. A characteristic feature of hemp seeds is a high fat content from 32.5 to 51.5% with a polyunsaturated fatty acid content (of the ω-3, ω-6 family) from 40 to 50% and a high protein content from 20 to 30% with a well balanced amino acid composition. The ratio of polyunsaturated essential fatty acids (EFA) ω-3 (linoleic acid), ω-6 (linolenic acid) in oil obtained from hemp seeds is among the most optimal for the human body and is recommended for use by people suffering from cardiovascular diseases and disorders of the nervous system. The need to enrich triticale flour with polyunsaturated fatty acids is also justified by the fact that-3 and ω-6 fatty acids are not synthesized in the human body due to the lack of an enzyme system. An innovative technology for producing composite wheat-hemp flour has been developed. For the first time, the possibility of joint grinding of a wheat-hemp grain grinding mixture was shown, which made it possible to develop a technology for obtaining wheat flour enriched with essential fatty acids ?-3 (linolenic acid) and-6 (linoleic acid). A technology for producing composite wheat-hemp flour enriched with polyunsaturated fatty acids has been developed. The total yield of wheat-hemp flour turned out to be quite high and amounted to 74.9% with an ash content of 1.36%. With the introduction of 10% hemp into the grinding mixture in the resulting bakery wheat-hemp flour, the fat content increased by 382%, and the protein content by 22.8%. In terms of organoleptic parameters, bread made from composite wheat-hemp flour enriched with polyunsaturated fatty acids was comparable to bread made from high-quality wheat flour.